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Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

Ice Miller is nationally recognized for its P3 and public infrastructure experience, and we regularly advise public- and private- sector clients on project delivery, P3 structuring, asset monetization and other tools to leverage public assets and develop public infrastructure.

Ice Miller’s clients include state and local governments, public institutions of higher education, as well as private developers, lending institutions and infrastructure investors. Ice Miller advises clients on building effective partnerships for both transportation and social infrastructure projects and helps to evaluate and develop these partnerships together with alternative procurement and project delivery methods that fit the size and scope of the project.

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Ice Miller's mission on each project is to advise and counsel our clients to match its infrastructure needs with the appropriate method of project delivery, including the utilization of P3 and other alternative project delivery methods, while incorporating key goals and commitments such as inclusion of life cycle costs, equity, growth, project sustainability and integrating ESG criteria into a thoughtful collaboration with private partners.

We have advised on projects in the following sectors:

Community Development & Social Infrastructure
Transportation & Social Infrastructure
Higher Education  


Ice Miller works with its clients through every element of the P3 process, starting with concept development and issuance of a competitive solicitation and continuing through compliance and delivery. Our experience in public finance, public affairs, structured and project finance, tax, construction, real estate and other related areas provides us with a unique skill and knowledge base to efficiently structure key elements of the P3 process.
Authorizing Legislation
Partner Selection
Asset Sales, Concessions, Purchases and Leases
Service Standards
Financial Terms
Project Finance

Representative Experience

Our team members have played a pinnacle role in many of the most important and innovative P3 transactions in the United States as highlighted below.
Indiana Toll Road. Ice Miller represented the Indiana Finance Authority (IFA) as its lead counsel in structuring and negotiating the lease of the Indiana Toll Road for $3.8 billion along with an additional $500 million in mandatory expansion projects. From start to finish, the process took less than nine months with the initial RFP in September 2005, a winning bidder selected in January 2006 and financial close in June 2006. Ice Miller assisted the IFA in preparing the RFP; drafting and negotiating the concession agreement; drafting legislation; obtaining legislative approval and defending three lawsuits seeking to prevent the IFA from moving forward with the transaction. Ice Miller continues to represent the IFA in its ongoing monitoring of the lease and handling of disputes with the concessionaire.
This project was analyzed in the Manhattan Institute’s report, “The Lessons of Long-Term Privatizations, Why Chicago Got It Wrong and Indiana Got it Right” by Aaron Renn. Read the report here.
Ohio River Bridges East End Crossing Project. Ice Miller was on the team of lead counsel for the P3 procurement for the East End Crossing portion of the Ohio River Bridges project. The project was awarded to a private entity responsible for developing, designing, building, financing, operating and maintaining a tolled bridge, roadway facilities and associated tunnel, referred to as the East End Crossing, across the Ohio River east of downtown Louisville, Kentucky. The project utilized an availability payment structure with the private entity and includes a new tolling regime. Ice Miller was also counsel to IFA on a TIFIA loan and was counsel to the IFA as the issuer of private activity bonds used by the developer to finance its obligations on the project.  Visit our case study to learn more.
Ohio River Bridges Toll Services Agreement. Ice Miller represented the IFA, acting on behalf of the parties representing both Indiana and Kentucky, in its procurement under Indiana’s P3 statute of a Toll System Provider for the entire Ohio River Bridges Project. This was a bi-state procurement for both the development and installation of an all-electronic toll “AET” collection system and for the management of that AET system for an initial seven year period. Visit our case study to learn more. 
Ohio Department of Transportation. Ice Miller represented the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) in analyzing various potential P3 projects, including Phase II of the Innerbelt Design Build Finance Project and the P3 project involving the interchange at Route 36/37 and Interstate Route 71. Ice Miller assisted ODOT in exploring various methods to finance these projects, including both traditional bond financing and P3 opportunities and provided general legal services in support of a host of technical and business/financial aspects of the projects including:
  • Assessment of any legislative, statutory, financial market regulation or other legal issue impacting the design build finance procurement process
  • Analysis of available economic development incentives
  • Assistance in the preparation of the required RFP documents
  • Assistance in the development of the RFP process including the preparation/review of draft and final versions of instructions to proposers
  • Assistance in preparation of the draft and final versions of a DBF contract
  • Advice on potential legal issues from the perspective of respondents and their lenders
  • Assistance in proposal evaluation
  • Coordination and implementation of closing
Interstate 69 (Section 5). Ice Miller’s broad range of experience in P3 projects is illustrated by a current engagement on behalf of Indiana with respect to Interstate 69 (I-69) Section 5. In 2014, the IFA and the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) used a public-private partnership structure to facilitate the development of Section 5 of I-69 in Central Indiana. Ice Miller attorneys were the principal drafters of the authorizing statute for the I-69 project and served as issuer’s counsel to IFA on the private activity bond financing used by the developer to finance the project.

The project has had a troubled history, resulting in ongoing disputes with the developer and design-build contractor about delays and increased project costs. Ice Miller represented IFA and INFOT in connection with such disputes and the resolution of issues needed to complete the project. This experience, necessitated by unfortunate circumstances, has given Ice Miller valuable insights on what can go wrong on a well-conceived project, the impact of project disputes on the overall success of the project and how better to protect a governmental owner from the inception of the project.

Note: the IFA has recently approved the material terms of an agreement for a settlement of all disputes with respect to the I-69 Section 5 Project with bondholders and the developer of the project.

Indianapolis Airport. Ice Miller represented the Indianapolis Airport Authority (IAA) in its process of selecting an operator to manage the Indianapolis Airport and then in the negotiations to end that relationship when IAA determined that no further advantages of privatization were being realized. Ice Miller led initial negotiations and provided substantial experience during the course of the contract to ensure the relationship satisfied various issues important to IAA, including protecting all outstanding bonds and the ability to issue future tax-exempt bonds. In addition, Ice Miller served as construction counsel with reference to the Indiana Airport’s Mid-field Expansion (approximately $1 billion project).


Indiana Stadium and Convention Building Authority. Ice Miller served as general and construction counsel to the Indiana Stadium and Convention Building Authority (ISCBA) since it was created in 2005. ISCBA was responsible for the development, design, financing and construction of Lucas Oil Stadium and the expansion of the Indiana Convention Center (combined cost of approximately $1 billion). Ice Miller was also lead real estate counsel to ISCBA and assisted the IFA in the restructuring of permanent financing for the overall project utilizing a variety of public and private sources of repayment. Visit our case study to learn more.

Indianapolis Parking. Ice Miller represented the City of Indianapolis, Indiana (City) in the privatization of the city's parking meters for a $20 million upfront payment and a revenue share between the city and the concessionaire over the remaining term of the lease. The Ice Miller team was instrumental in this unique structure, which helped to better align the concessionaire's interest with the city's interest, and ensured proceeds from the transaction would be available for future administrations and generations. In P3 circles, this structure is known as the "Indianapolis Model" and is now being considered in P3 deals as a possible alternative to an aggregate upfront payment.

Chicago Parking. Ice Miller was part of the legal team that represented Morgan Stanley Infrastructure Partners in its successful bid to lease the Chicago Downtown Public Parking System for $563 million. The Ice Miller team managed all legal aspects of the transaction related to real estate, environment and labor and employee benefits.


Indianapolis Water and Wastewater. Ice Miller represented Citizens Energy Group in its acquisition of the water and wastewater systems of the City, resulting in a payment to the City of approximately $2 billion. The Ice Miller team managed all legal aspects of the transaction, except for utility regulatory approvals, including contract negotiation, due diligence review, environmental regulatory approval, tax issues, all financing and bond-related needs, real estate and statutory compliance issues. Because Citizens Energy Group is itself a governmental entity, the City was able to sell the systems without adversely affecting the tax status of outstanding tax-exempt bonds. This transaction involved the issuance of approximately $1 billion of tax-exempt bonds and the substitution of another $1 billion of Citizens Energy Group bonds for the City's bonds. Visit our case study to learn more.

Westfield Gas, Water and Wastewater. Ice Miller represented Citizens Westfield Utilities, LLC, a subsidiary of Citizens Energy Group, in the acquisition of the gas, water and wastewater systems of the City of Westfield, Indiana, resulting in the issuance of $92,725,000 in tax-exempt bonds to finance its acquisition. Similar to the Indianapolis Water and Wastewater transaction noted above, the Ice Miller team managed all legal aspects of the transaction, except for utility regulatory approvals, including contract negotiation, due diligence review, environmental regulatory approval, tax issues, all financing and bond-related needs, real estate and statutory compliance issues.


Ice Miller has advised a number of higher education institutions, including Indiana University, Purdue University, Ivy Tech Community College and The Ohio State University, in various public private partnerships opportunities with respect to parking systems, energy and utility systems and other development project. Ice Miller’s role in reviewing these opportunities is identify the ability of the higher education institution to: (i) monetize existing assets or auxiliary systems, (ii) develop new projects jointly with private developers or (iii) both monetize and develop projects. Ice Miller has also represented developers working with higher education projects such as graduate or family housing developments.

The Ohio State University (OSU). Ice Miller was an integral part of the legal team on a P3 deal with a private concessionaire on a far-reaching P3 transaction involving the university’s energy and utility systems. The deal provides for a 50-year lease agreement with Ohio State Energy Partners and includes a $1.015 billion upfront payment to the university and a $150 million commitment to support academics, including financial aid and compensation for faculty and staff.

Ohio Academic Resources Network (OARnet). Ice Miller represented the OARnet in the development and implementation of its fiber optic network, the second largest state-owned fiber network in the country. 
Ohio Board of Development. Ice Miller represented the Ohio Board of Development in the drafting of the Ohio Broadband Policy. 
City of Columbus, Ohio. Ice Miller represented the City of Columbus, Ohio in drafting the formal telecommunications policy for the city. Columbus was named Intelligent Community of the year in 2016 by the Intelligent Community Forum and won a $40M Smart City grant through the U.S. Department of Transportation.
City of Dublin, Ohio. Ice Miller represented the City of Dublin, Ohio in the development and drafting of the "Dublink" municipally owned fiber/conduit and Wi-Fi system. The Firm subsequently represented the city in drafting agreements and negotiating transactions associated with the maintenance and sale of fibers for Dublink.
Ohio Department of Transportation. Ice Miller represents ODOT in the development of its 33 Smart Corridor, which is slated to be the longest automotive/connected vehicle testing corridor in the world.

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Firm Publications


Blog Posts

Speaking Engagements

  • 2022 P3C Conference, "Why do a P3? Building the Business Case for a P3 and Sellig it to Your Community," March 14, 2022
  • 2021 P3C Government Conference, "Opening Conversation: Different Day, Same Great Conversation!," December 7, 2021
  • 2021 P3 Conference, "Utilization of a Public Charitable Trust to Ensure High-Quality Utility Service," September 14, 2021
  • 2021 P3 Conference, "Opportunity Analysis for Large Infrastructure Projects: How Do You Stay Creative and Innovative While Working on a P3 Project?," September 14, 2021
  • 2021 P3 Confernece, "Trends in Sustainability for Infrastructure Projects," September 15, 2021
  • "Rail Projects Generations in the Making - How It Happened" P3 Government Conference, December 10, 2020
  • "Smart Cities in a COVID-19 World" at the Mayor's Institute Hosted by Ball State University and AIM (Accelerate Indiana Municipalities), November 9, 2020
  • "How to Work With Your Advisors to Achieve Your Project Deliverables," Convention Sports and Entertainment Facilities Conference, August 14, 2020
  • “What is Your Flavor of Procurement?,” Convention Sports and Entertainment Facilities Conference hosted by the Association for the Improvement of American Infrastructure’s (AIAI), August 13, 2020
  • P3C Conference Panel 2020
  • "P3s: Public-Private Partnerships," Litera TV, October 15, 2020
  • "Current Smart City P3 Projects: A Deeper Dive," Ice Miller P3 webinar, April 10, 2019
  • "P3s for Smart City Projects: An Overview," Ice Miller P3 webinar, April 9, 2019
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